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Solar Cell Interference Reduced By Moth Eye Reflection

Mimicking nature can improve thin-film III-V solar cells and other optoelectronic devices


Inspired by the structure of moth eyes, researchers at North Carolina State University have developed nanostructures that limit reflection at the interfaces where two thin films meet.

This suppresses the “thin-film interference" phenomenon commonly observed in nature which could potentially improve the efficiency of thin-film solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.





Thin-film interference occurs when a thin film of one substance lies on top of a second substance.

The phenomenon of interference and no interference are depicted in the schematic above.

For example, thin-film interference is what causes the rainbow sheen we see when there is gasoline in a puddle of water.

Gasoline is transparent, but some light is still reflected off of its surface. Similarly, some of the light that passes through the gasoline is reflected off the underlying surface of the water where the two substances interface, or meet.

Because the light reflected off the water has to pass back through the gasoline, it takes a slightly different optical path than the light that was reflected off the surface of the gasoline.

The mismatch of these optical path “lengths" is what creates the rainbow sheen - and that phenomenon is thin-film interference.

Thin-film interference is a problem for devices that use multiple layers of thin films, like thin-film solar cells. because it means that some wavelengths of light are being reflected - or “lost," at every film interface.

The more thin films a device has, the more interfaces there are, and the more light is lost.

“We were inspired by the surface structure of a moth’s eye, which has evolved so that it doesn’t reflect light," says  Chih-Hao Chang, an assistant professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at NC State and co-author of a paper on the research.

“By mimicking that concept, we’ve developed a nanostructure that significantly minimises thin-film interference."

The nanostructures are built into thin films that will have a second thin film placed on top of them. The nanostructures are an extension of the thin film beneath them, and resemble a tightly-packed forest of thin cones. These nanostructures are “interfacial," penetrating into whatever thin film is layered on top of them and limiting the amount of light reflected at that interface.

Chang’s team found that the an interface featuring the interfacial nanostructures reflects 100 times less light than an interface of thin films without the nanostructures.

“Our next steps are to design a solar device that takes advantage of this concept and to determine how we can scale it up for commercial applications," Chang says.

Further details of this work have been published in the article, “Antireflection Effects at Nanostructured Material Interfaces and the Suppression of Thin-Film Interference," by Qiaoyin Yang et al, Nanotechnology 2013, 24 235202 doi:10.1088/0957-4484/24/23/235202

The research was supported by a NASA Early Career Faculty Award and the National Science Foundation’s ASSIST Engineering Research Centre at NC State.



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